Routes of transmission of the HPV virus: all possible routes of infection

Absolutely everyone needs to know how the human papillomavirus is transmitted. More than half of the world's population already carries the papillomavirus. HPV is a special microorganism that is able to reproduce in epithelial cells and prevent them from dividing. It is more often activated in the body in women. Are people infected with the virus contagious and how are they transmitted? Only by having complete information about the ways the virus is transmitted can you warn yourself and your loved ones of an infection. The main source of infection is the carrier of the HPV virus.

human papilloma virus

Transfer methods

Among the mechanisms under the influence of which you can become infected are:

  • contact;
  • vertically (from mother to child at birth).

The implementation of the contact mechanism is carried out through sexual and contact-domestic way. Therefore, HPV can be transmitted through:

  • handshake and kiss;
  • the use of foreign hygiene products, which include razor, towel, soap, towel and cosmetics;
  • wearing clothes that belong to the carrier of the infection;
  • visiting public baths, saunas and swimming pools.

Oncogenic types of virus are sexually transmitted. The risk of infection increases many times in those people who are indiscriminate in partners. The more often they are changed, the greater the likelihood of infection and even with a condom you cannot be sure of your safety.

a woman and a man infected with the human papillomavirus

You can also become infected with homosexual relationships because they are characterized by damage to the epithelium and mucous membranes. And a condom in this case also does not really help. The presence of warts on the body of a sexual partner also signals the possibility of acquiring HPV through microtrauma on the body.

Pregnant women who are carriers of HPV should be aware of the possibility of infecting a child while passing through the birth canal.

The infection occurs only in the presence of characteristic growths in the genital area and cervix. At the same time, papillomavirus infection in children manifests itself in the form of growths in the larynx, which are particularly dangerous. It will be difficult for the baby to breathe and eat, maybe even suffocate.

Favorable conditions for infection

Contact with an HPV carrier does not necessarily mean infection. Only if there are lesions on the skin and mucous membranes, the papillomavirus can enter the body. Accordingly, HPV is much easier to become infected if the skin has:

  • wounds;
  • scratches;
  • abrasions;
  • cracks;
  • abrasions;
  • combing.

During sexual intercourse, it should be borne in mind that different types of skin injuries can be on tissues adjacent to the genitals. Infection can also occur when using a condom.

itchy skin with human papilloma virus

The mucosa becomes uninsured against infection with a depressed immune system. The appearance of papillomas and warts in the genital area is often triggered by the presence of other infections in the body. If such growths are found, treatment should be performed not only by the HPV carrier but also by his partner.

Disruption of the microflora of the vagina in women and even the intestines in both sexes can also lead to a decrease in immunity and, accordingly, the papillomavirus enters the body more easily.

HPV activation

Even if the papillomavirus infection is already present in the body, you may not notice any of its manifestations. It is not necessary for growths to appear on the body at all. Papillomavirus is often latent and completely asymptomatic.

HPV can be compared to the herpes virus, which is also present in the body of the majority of the population, but the characteristic symptoms on the body do not always indicate its presence. With a strong immune system, the papillomavirus may not multiply.

Only under favorable conditions for the development of HPV infection begins to intensify. In the nuclei of cells there is an active reproduction of virions, which leads to disorders in cell proliferation. Using human cells, the papillomavirus creates its own copies. As a result, uncontrolled cell proliferation and the appearance of neoplasms on the body.

Conditions that provoke the activation of the virus:

  • exacerbation of any disease that can be called chronic;
  • recent infectious diseases;
  • the presence of an intestinal infection;
  • congenital immunodeficiency;
  • non-compliance with diet and diet;
  • work in production, which belongs to the category of harmful;
  • frequent stressful situations.

Activation of the virus can be caused by various factors that to a greater or lesser extent affect the state of the immune system. Only with reduced immunity do neoplasms appear on the body.

Prevention measures

There are a number of preventative measures that make it very likely that human papillomavirus infection will not enter the body.

  • all skin lesions should be treated with antiseptics;
  • use only personal hygiene products;
  • in public saunas, baths and swimming pools it is necessary to use slippers made of rubber;
  • any disease must be treated promptly;
  • loyalty to a trusted sexual partner;
  • use a condom during all sexual intercourse. Although this does not guarantee safety, the papillomavirus is less likely to enter the body of both women and men through a condom;
  • regular exercise;
  • hardening of the body;
  • adherence to sleep and nutrition.

Such precautions should be taken not only to avoid HPV infection but also other sexually transmitted infections. The condom provides a guarantee against infection with many diseases that provoke the activation of the HPV virus.

condoms to protect the human papillomavirus

In case of the presence of the virus in the body of pregnant women and its manifestations in the genital area, a complete examination and removal of such neoplasms is necessary. If there are papillomas on the genitals, a caesarean section is recommended for the woman to prevent infection of the child during the passage through the birth canal.

There is a special vaccine against highly oncogenic strains of viruses, which is recommended mainly for women under 26 years and adolescents. Even if the HPV carrier himself is vaccinated, his immunity improves significantly and the virus goes into an inactive phase.

At the same time, it should be borne in mind that the virus does not disappear from the body and, accordingly, the person remains a carrier of the infection. For safety reasons, he should use a condom during sexual intercourse and use only personal hygiene products.


Women are more prone to such manifestations of HPV as growths on the body. Their immune system is much weaker and does not resist the virus well. But at the same time, there is no reason to believe that a man should not worry about the presence of a virus. It is also a threat as it is a source of infection.

Not all tumors on the body can be removed on their own. All actions should be performed only under the supervision of the attending physician.

Infection can be avoided. It is enough to observe personal hygiene, use a condom during sexual intercourse, carefully observe your own skin and pay attention to the presence of growths on the body of loved ones.